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Version: v1.28.x LTS



Zowe provides sample configurations that make it easy for you to run Zowe in Kubernetes. You can use them directly or as a reference.

You can customize the configuration or make your own. If you do so, note the following objects that are expected by the container deployments:

ConfigMapzowe-certificates-cmContains zowe-certificates.env with the same format as seen on z/OS keystore
Secretzowe-certificates-secretContains the base64 PEM and P12 data for keystore and truststore
Ingressdiscovery-ingressUsed for external access to the Discovery service
Ingressgateway-ingressUsed for external access to the Gateway service
RoutediscoveryUsed for external access to the Discovery service
RoutegatewayUsed for external access to the Gateway service
Servicediscovery-serviceUsed for internal or external access to the Discovery service
Servicegateway-serviceUsed for external access to the Gateway service
Servicecatalog-serviceUsed for access to the Catalog service
HorizontalPodAutoscaler*Autoscalers exist for the various pods
PodDisruptionBudget*Disruption budgets exist for the various pods

To configure the Zowe container environment, complete the following procedure.

1. Create namespace and service account#

Run the following commands to create Zowe's Namespace zowe with Service Account zowe-sa.

kubectl apply -f common/zowe-ns.yamlkubectl apply -f common/zowe-sa.yaml

Note that by default, zowe-sa service account has automountServiceAccountToken disabled for security purposes.

To verify, check the following configurations.

  • kubectl get namespaces should show a Namespace zowe.

    This displays the default Namespace zowe, if not set.

  • kubectl get serviceaccounts --namespace zowe should show a ServiceAccount zowe-sa.

    This displays the default ServiceAccount zowe-sa, if not set.

2. Create Persistent Volume Claim (PVC)#

Zowe's PVC has a default StorageClass value that may not apply to all Kubernetes clusters. Check and customize the storageClassName value of samples/workspace-pvc.yaml as needed. You can use kubectl get sc to confirm which StorageClass you can use.

After you customize the storageClassName value, apply the result by issuing the following commands:

kubectl apply -f samples/workspace-pvc.yaml

To verify, run the following commands and check if the STATUS of line item zowe-workspace-pvc shows as Bound.

kubectl get pvc --namespace zowe

Note that zowe-workspace-pvc PersistentVolumeClaim must be declared in access mode ReadWriteMany.

In some Kubernetes environment, you may need to define PeristentVolume and define volumeName in PersistentVolumeClaim instead of defining storageClassName. Please consult your Kubernetes administrator to confirm the appropriate way for your environment. This is an example to configure PersistentVolumeClaim with pre-configured zowe-workspace-pv PeristentVolume.

apiVersion: v1kind: PersistentVolumeClaimmetadata:  name: zowe-workspace-pvc  namespace: zowe  labels: zowe zowe manualspec:  storageClassName: ""  volumeName: zowe-workspace-pv  accessModes:    - ReadWriteMany  resources:    requests:      storage: 50Mi

3. Create and modify ConfigMaps and Secrets#

Similarly, to running Zowe services on z/OS, you can use either instance.env or zowe.yaml to customize Zowe.

You can modify samples/config-cm.yaml, , and samples/certificates-secret.yaml directly. Or more conveniently, if you have Zowe ZSS/ZIS running on z/OS, the Kubernetes environment can reuse instance and keystore configuration from that installation (supported in v1.25 and later).

If you want to manually create, or later customize the ConfigMaps and Secrets, see Customizing or manually creating ConfigMaps and Secrets for details.

To create and modify ConfigMaps and Secrets by using the migrate configuration script, complete the following steps:

a. On z/OS, run the following command:

cd <instance-dir> ./bin/utils/ -x ","

This migration script supports these parameters:

  • -x: is a comma-separated list of domains you will use to visit the Zowe Kubernetes cluster. These domains and IP addresses will be added to your new certificate if needed. This is optional. The default value is localhost.
  • -n: is the Zowe Kubernetes cluster namespace. This is optional. The default value is zowe.
  • -u: is the Kubernetes cluster name. This is optional. The default value is cluster.local.
  • -p: is the password of the local certificate authority PKCS#12 file. This is optional. The default value is local_ca_password.
  • -a: is the certificate alias of the local certificate authority. This is optional. The default value is localca.
  • -v: is a switch to enable verbose mode which will display more debugging information.

As a result, it displays ConfigMaps (zowe-config, zowe-certificates-cm) and Secrets (zowe-certificates-secret) Kubernetes objects which are based on the Zowe instance and keystore used. The content looks similar to samples/config-cm.yaml, samples/certificates-cm.yaml and samples/certificates-secret.yaml but with real values.

b. Follow the instructions in the script output to copy the output and save it as a YAML file configs.yaml on your computer where you manage Kubernetes.

c. Apply the file into Kubernetes:

`kubectl apply -f /path/to/your/configs.yaml`

d. Remove the previously saved configs.yaml file from all systems for security.

To verify:

  • kubectl get configmaps --namespace zowe

    This command must display the two ConfigMaps zowe-config and zowe-certificates-cm.

  • kubectl get secrets --namespace zowe

    This command must display a Secret zowe-certificates-secret.

4. Expose API Mediation Layer components#

This step makes Zowe's Gateway, Discovery, and API Catalog servers available over a network.

The Gateway is always required to be externally accessible, and depending upon your environment the Discovery service may also need to be externally accessible.

The actions you need to take in this step vary depending upon your Kubernetes cluster configuration. If you are uncertain about this section, please contact your Kubernetes administrator or the Zowe community.

4a. Create service#

You can set up either a LoadBalancer or NodePort type Service.

Note: Because NodePort cannot be used together with NetworkPolicies, LoadBalancer and Ingress is preferred configuration option.

Review the following table for steps you may take depending on the Kubernetes provider you use. If you don't need additional setups, you can skip steps 4b, 4c and jump directly to the Apply zowe section.

Kubernetes providerServiceAdditional setups required
minikubeLoadBalancer or NodePortPort Forward (on next section Starting, stopping, and monitoring)
bare-metalLoadBalancer or NodePortCreate Ingress
OpenShiftLoadBalancer or NodePortCreate Route

Defining api-catalog service#

api-catalog-service is required by Zowe, but not necessarily exposed to external users. Therefore, api-catalog-service is defined as type ClusterIP.

To define this service, run the command:

kubectl apply -f samples/api-catalog-service.yaml

Upon success, you should see the following output:

service/api-catalog-service created

Then, you can proceed with creating the Gateway and Discovery services according to your environment.

Applying Gateway Service#

If using LoadBalancer, run the command:

kubectl apply -f samples/gateway-service-lb.yaml

Or if using NodePort instead, first check spec.ports[0].nodePort as this will be the port to be exposed to external. In this case, the default gateway port is not 7554 but 32554. You will need to use https://<your-k8s-node>:32554/ to access APIML Gateway. To apply NodePort type gateway-service, run the following command:

kubectl apply -f samples/gateway-service-np.yaml

To verify either case, run the following command and check that the command displays the service gateway-service.

kubectl get services --namespace zowe

Applying Discovery service#

Exposing the Discovery service is only required when there is a Zowe service or extension which needs to be registered to the API Mediation Layer but is running outside of Kubernetes, such as on z/OS. Otherwise, the discovery service can remain accessible only within the Kubernetes environment.

Optional: To setup the discovery service without exposing it externally, edit samples/discovery-service-lb.yaml if using LoadBalancer type services, or samples/discovery-service-np.yaml if using NodePort type services. In either file, specify ClusterIP as the type, replacing the NodePort or LoadBalancer value.

To enable the service externally when using LoadBalancer services, run the command:

kubectl apply -f samples/discovery-service-lb.yaml

Or if using NodePort instead, first check spec.ports[0].nodePort as this will be the port to be exposed to external. In this case, the default discovery port is not 7553 but 32553. And you will need to use https://<your-k8s-node>:32553/ to access APIML Discovery. To apply NodePort type discovery-service, run the following command:

kubectl apply -f samples/discovery-service-np.yaml

To verify either case, run the following command and check that this command displays the service discovery-service:

kubectl get services --namespace zowe

Upon completion of all the preceding steps in this a. Create service section, you may need to run additional setups. Refer to "Additional setups required" in the table. If you don't need additional setups, you can skip 4b, 4c, 4d, and jump directly to Apply Zowe section.

4b. Create Ingress (Bare-metal)#

An Ingress gives Services externally-reachable URLs and may provide other abilities such as traffic load balancing.

To create Ingress, perform the following steps:

a. Edit samples/gateway-ingress.yaml and samples/discovery-ingress.yaml before applying them, by uncommenting the lines (19 and 20) for defining spec.rules[0].host and http:, and then commenting out the line below, - http:

b. Run the following commands:

kubectl apply -f samples/bare-metal/gateway-ingress.yamlkubectl apply -f samples/bare-metal/discovery-ingress.yaml

To verify, run the following commands:

kubectl get ingresses --namespace zowe

This command must display two Ingresses gateway-ingress and discovery-ingress.

Upon completion, you can finish the setup by applying zowe and starting it.

4c. Create Route (OpenShift)#

If you are using OpenShift and choose to use LoadBalancer services, you may already have an external IP for the service. You can use that external IP to access Zowe APIML Gateway. To verify your service external IP, run:

oc get svc -n zowe

If you see an IP in the EXTERNAL-IP column, that means your OpenShift is properly configured and can provision external IP for you. If you see <pending> and it does not change after waiting for a while, that means you may not be able to use LoadBalancer services with your current configuration. Try ClusterIP services and define Route. A Route is a way to expose a service by giving it an externally-reachable hostname.

To create a route, perform the following steps:

a. Check and set the value of spec.port.targetPort in samples/gateway-route.yaml and samples/discovery-route.yaml before applying the changes.

b. Run the following commands:

oc apply -f samples/openshift/gateway-route.yamloc apply -f samples/openshift/discovery-route.yaml

To verify, run the following commands:

oc get routes --namespace zowe

This command must display the two Services gateway and discovery.

Upon completion, you can finish the setup by applying zowe and starting it.

Customizing or manually creating ConfigMaps and Secrets#

The z/OS to k8s convert tool can automatically create a config map and secret. However, if you want to customize or create your own, review the instructions in this section.

To manually create the ConfigMaps and Secrets used by Zowe containers, you must create the following objects:

  1. A ConfigMap, with values based upon a Zowe instance's instance.env and similar to the example samples/config-cm.yaml with the following differences to the values seen on a z/OS install:

    • ZOWE_EXPLORER_HOST, ZOWE_IP_ADDRESS, ZWE_LAUNCH_COMPONENTS, ZWE_DISCOVERY_SERVICES_LIST and SKIP_NODE are not needed for Zowe running in Kubernetes and will be ignored. You can remove them.
    • JAVA_HOME and NODE_HOME are not usually needed if you are using Zowe base images.
    • ROOT_DIR must be set to /home/zowe/runtime.
    • KEYSTORE_DIRECTORY must be set to /home/zowe/keystore.
    • ZWE_EXTERNAL_HOSTS is suggested to define as a list of domains you are using to access your Kubernetes cluster.
    • ZOWE_EXTERNAL_HOST=$(echo "${ZWE_EXTERNAL_HOSTS}" | awk -F, '{print $1}' | tr -d '[[:space:]]') is needed to define after ZWE_EXTERNAL_HOSTS. It's the primary external domain.
    • ZWE_EXTERNAL_PORT (or zowe.externalPort if you are using zowe.yaml) must be the port you expose to end-user. This value is optional if it's same as default GATEWAY_PORT 7554. With default settings,
      • if you choose LoadBalancer gateway-service, this value is optional, or set to 7554,
      • if you choose NodePort gateway-service and access the service directly, this value should be same as spec.ports[0].nodePort with default value 32554,
      • if you choose NodePort gateway-service and access the service through port forwarding, the value should be the forwarded port you set.
    • ZOWE_ZOS_HOST is recommended to be set to where the z/OS system where your Zowe ZSS/ZIS is running.
    • ZWE_DISCOVERY_SERVICES_REPLICAS should be set to same value of spec.replicas defined in workloads/discovery-statefulset.yaml.
    • All components running in Kubernetes should use default ports:
      • CATALOG_PORT is 7552,
      • DISCOVERY_PORT is 7553,
      • GATEWAY_PORT is 7554,
      • JOBS_API_PORT is 8545,
      • FILES_API_PORT is 8547,
      • JES_EXPLORER_UI_PORT is 8546,
      • MVS_EXPLORER_UI_PORT is 8548,
      • USS_EXPLORER_UI_PORT is 8550,
    • ZOWE_ZSS_SERVER_PORT should be set to the port where your Zowe ZSS is running on ZOWE_ZOS_HOST.
    • APIML_GATEWAY_EXTERNAL_MAPPER should be set to https://${GATEWAY_HOST}:${GATEWAY_PORT}/zss/api/v1/certificate/x509/map.
    • APIML_SECURITY_AUTHORIZATION_ENDPOINT_URL should be set to https://${GATEWAY_HOST}:${GATEWAY_PORT}/zss/api/v1/saf-auth.
    • ZWE_CACHING_SERVICE_PERSISTENT should NOT be set to VSAM. redis is suggested. Follow Redis configuration documentation to customize other Redis related variables. Leave the value to empty for debugging purposes.
    • Must append and customize these 2 values:
      • ZWED_agent_host=${ZOWE_ZOS_HOST}
      • ZWED_agent_https_port=${ZOWE_ZSS_SERVER_PORT}

    If you are using zowe.yaml, the above configuration items are still valid but should use the matching zowe.yaml configuration entries. Check Updating the zowe.yaml configuration file for more details.

  2. A ConfigMap, with values based upon a Zowe keystore's zowe-certificates.env and similar to the example samples/certificates-cm.yaml.

  3. A Secret, with values based upon a Zowe keystore's files, and similar to the example samples/certificates-secret.yaml.


Zowe provides optional PodDisruptionBudget which can provide high availability during upgrade. By default, Zowe defines minAvailable to be 1 for all deployments. This configuration is optional but recommended. To apply PodDisruptionBudget, run this command:

kubectl apply -f samples/pod-disruption-budget/

To verify this step, run:

kubectl get pdb --namespace zowe

This should show you a list of PodDisruptionBudget like this:

NAME               MIN AVAILABLE   MAX UNAVAILABLE   ALLOWED DISRUPTIONS   AGEapi-catalog-pdb    1               N/A               0                     1dapp-server-pdb     1               N/A               0                     1dcaching-pdb        1               N/A               0                     1ddiscovery-pdb      1               N/A               0                     1dexplorer-jes-pdb   1               N/A               0                     1dexplorer-mvs-pdb   1               N/A               0                     1dexplorer-uss-pdb   1               N/A               0                     1dfiles-api-pdb      1               N/A               0                     1dgateway-pdb        1               N/A               0                     1djobs-api-pdb       1               N/A               0                     1d


Zowe provides optional HorizontalPodAutoscaler which can automatically scale Zowe components based on resource usage. By default, each workload has a minimum of 1 replica and a maximum of 3 to 5 replicas based on CPU usage. This configuration is optional but recommended. HorizontalPodAutoscaler relies on Kubernetes Metrics server monitoring to provide metrics through the Metrics API. To learn how to deploy the metrics-server, see the metrics-server documentation. Please adjust the HorizontalPodAutoscaler definitions based on your cluster resources, then run this command to apply them to your cluster:

kubectl apply -f samples/horizontal-pod-autoscaler/

To verify this step, run:

kubectl get hpa --namespace zowe

This should show you a list of HorizontalPodAutoscaler like this:

NAME               REFERENCE                 TARGETS   MINPODS   MAXPODS   REPLICAS   AGEapi-catalog-hpa    Deployment/api-catalog    60%/70%   1         3         1          20mapp-server-hpa     Deployment/app-server     2%/70%    1         5         1          9m59scaching-hpa        Deployment/caching        7%/70%    1         3         1          9m59sdiscovery-hpa      StatefulSet/discovery     34%/70%   1         3         1          8m15sexplorer-jes-hpa   Deployment/explorer-jes   10%/70%   1         3         1          9m59sexplorer-mvs-hpa   Deployment/explorer-mvs   10%/70%   1         3         1          9m59sexplorer-uss-hpa   Deployment/explorer-uss   10%/70%   1         3         1          9m59sfiles-api-hpa      Deployment/files-api      8%/70%    1         3         1          9m59sgateway-hpa        Deployment/gateway        20%/60%   1         5         1          9m59sjobs-api-hpa       Deployment/jobs-api       8%/70%    1         3         1          9m59s

Kubernetes v1.21+#

If you have Kubernetes v1.21+, several optional changes are recommended based on Deprecated API Migration Guide.

  • Kind CronJob: change apiVersion: batch/v1beta1 to apiVersion: batch/v1 on workloads/zowe-yaml/cleanup-static-definitions-cronjob.yaml and workloads/instance-env/cleanup-static-definitions-cronjob.yaml. apiVersion: batch/v1beta1 will stop working on Kubernetes v1.25.
  • Kind PodDisruptionBudget: change apiVersion: policy/v1beta1 to apiVersion: policy/v1 on all files in samples/pod-disruption-budget/. apiVersion: policy/v1beta1 will stop working on Kubernetes v1.25.